this shot isused to set the scene and show the surroundings. you can not see the characters face but you can see all the surroundings. it is used when cutting to a new locations to show off the surroundings.
extreme long shot:
cant recognize the character without context as they are so far away. this shot is also used when the director is trying to show how the character is all alone or dominant.
whole figure can be seen in context and shows where the person is and what they are doing. as it is full person their clothes can be seen very easily so we know what kind of person they are
medium long shot:
this is usually used to show two characters walking together. it is from the knees to head and you can start to see facial expressions and movement.
this is from waist to head and is most commonly used to show two people in a conversation with one another
medium close up:
this shot focuses on the character and what they are saying, the surroundings are usually either blurred out or not really visible.this makes the audience focus on the character.
a close up is shoulders to head. it completely show the characters face and what they are feeling. this may be used to see how they are feeling by looking at their facial expressions or it may be used to simulate what its like being in the conversation with the character.
extreme close up:
and finally the extreme close up shows really close up detail. for example it may be used to show a bug on the street or the scar on a mans face. they are usually very detailed shots and are used to show a particular thing or pin point something.